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Which of the following statements is more accurate regarding a confounding variable? A variable that, in addition to or in place of the independent variable, has an effect on the outcome that is being assessed.
What characteristics give anything its confounding nature?
In order for a variable to be considered a potential confounding factor, it is necessary for that variable to possess all three of the following properties: (1) the variable must have an association with the disease, which means that it should be a risk factor for the disease; (2) the variable must have an association with the exposure, which means that it must be unequally distributed between the…
What exactly is this confusing quizlet?
The definition of the term “confounding” Confounding variables are those that blend the effects of the exposure, the outcome, and a third variable that is not directly related to the study. Variable that could confuse the issue A confounding variable is a variable that is independently related with both the disease and the risk factor (exposure).
Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding confounds?
Which of the following phrases most accurately explains the use of confound checks? These are helpful in determining whether the manipulation has accidentally generated changes on other variables that we did not intend to affect in any way. An investigator wants to know whether or not the method he devised for his study would get the results he anticipated it would.
What exactly does a confounding factor do?
A confounder is an extraneous variable that has an effect on the variables that are the focus of the investigation. As a result, the results of the investigation do not accurately reflect the relationship that exists between the variables that are being investigated. The primary objective of large-scale epidemiological investigations is to identify the elements that contribute to the development of diseases based on their connections with a variety of potential dangers.
Which of the following provides the most accurate description of the connection between confusing, dependent, and…
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What exactly is an example of a positive confounder?
The unadjusted estimate of the major association between exposure and outcome will be moved further away from the null hypothesis than the adjusted measure due to the presence of a positive confounder. A negative confounder means that the unadjusted estimate will be moved closer to the hypothesis that there is no relationship between the two variables.
What exactly is an example of a confounding factor?
An “additional” variable that you did not take into consideration is referred to as a confusing variable. They are able to thwart an experiment and produce results that are of no utility… For instance, if you are conducting research to determine whether or not a lack of physical activity contributes to weight growth, then the absence of physical activity would be your independent variable, and weight gain would be your dependent variable.
What are the four different types of Validity?
Whether reading about other experiments or developing your own, it is helpful to keep these four major validities—internal, external, construct, and statistical—in mind. The first two are internal, and the latter two are external and statistical. Researchers, however, are need to prioritize, and it is frequently not possible to have high validity in all four domains at the same time.
How do you alter independent variables?
To reiterate, manipulating an independent variable involves systematically changing its level in such a way that either different groups of participants are exposed to varying levels of the variable over the course of the study, or the same group of participants is exposed to varying levels over the course of the study at different times.
How do you determine who the confounders are?
Finding the Confounding Variables
To put it another way, it is necessary to compute the measure of association both before and after making any necessary adjustments for a possible confounding factor. Confounding was observed when there was a difference between the two measures of association that was more than or equal to 10%. If the percentage is less than 10%, then there was very little confusing, if any at all.
A confounding effect is defined in a quizlet as what?
Confounding. A deviation from the expected link between exposure and disease that can be traced back to the influence of a third component. A confounding variable can either completely or partially account for the effect that was observed as a result of the exposure to the variable that was being studied, or it can disguise or mask an underlying real link.
What is the quizlet definition of a simple random sampling?
straightforward sampling at random. a method of sampling in which each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected for inclusion in the sample. systematic sampling. After sorting the population according to some criterion, a random sample is taken from every nth individual.
In psychology, what is a confounding variable? Take the quiz to find out.
Variable that could confuse the issue an extraneous variable is one whose presence influences the variables that are the focus of the inquiry. As a result, the results that you acquire do not accurately reflect the relationship that exists between the variables that are being studied.
Is smoking a factor that causes confusion?
The statistical control for this aspect deserves careful evaluation because cigarette smoking is a potential confounder of the association between being overweight and having a shorter lifespan.
Is a confounder the same thing as a mediator?
A confounder is a third variable that influences the variables of interest and makes it appear as though they are related to one another even though this is not the case. On the other hand, a mediator is the process that explains how two different variables are associated; it is the mechanism that underlies a relationship between the variables.
In epidemiology, what does the term “confounder” mean?
In epidemiologic investigations, one form of systematic mistake known as confounding may take place… The term “confounding” refers to the process through which an irrelevant third variable, also known as a confounder, distorts the connection between an exposure and a health outcome.
What dependent and independent variables?
The independent variable is the one that is manipulated or changed by the researcher, and it is supposed to have a direct effect on the variable that is being studied (the dependent variable). During an experiment, the variable that is being tested and measured is referred to as the dependent variable. This variable is ‘depending’ on the independent variable.
What are some instances of variables that are independent and variables that are dependent?
The independent variable has an effect on the variable that is being studied (the dependent variable). One independent variable that influences your performance on a exam is the amount of time that you spend sleeping. This makes perfect sense, however: For instance, the amount of time you spend in bed depends on how you did on the test.
What are examples of quantitative variables?
As was covered in the portion of Chapter 1 devoted to variables, variables that are measured on a numeric scale are referred to as quantitative variables. Examples of quantitative variables are height, weight, reaction time, subjective pain rating, temperature, and test score. Other examples include temperature and subjective pain rating.
What is the key distinction between the internal and external validity of a study?
Both an investigation’s internal and external validity are important factors to consider when determining the reliability and significance of the findings of a study. The extent to which the findings may be applied to the world outside of the laboratory is known as the study’s external validity. Internal validity refers to how well a study is carried out (its structure).
What are the two most important justifications for carrying out a factorial investigation?
What are two advantages of carrying out a factorial investigation? They investigate if an IV has the same effect on individuals of varying demographics or on individuals undergoing a variety of life experiences. -Is there a relationship between the level of one independent variable and the influence of the independent variable that was studied initially?
How exactly does one justify the reliability of an experiment?
The extent to which the findings of an experiment are reliable is referred to as its validity. The procedure is evaluated for its internal validity by determining whether it adheres to the scientific method and reveals anything of value. The outcome of the experiment is evaluated for its internal validity by determining whether or not it explains the occurrence in question.
What are some variables that frequently cause confusion?
A confounding variable is any other factor except weight gain itself that can have an effect on the outcome. The amount of food consumed is one example of a confounding variable, as is the use of a placebo. The weather is another potential example of a confounding variable. Each variable has the potential to affect the outcome of the experiment.
What is a lurking variable in stats?
According to the accepted definition of the term, a “lurking variable” is one that possesses a significant influence but is not one of the predictor variables that are being taken into account.
Is time a variable that could cause confusion?
When there is a time-varying cause of disease that also brings about changes in a time-varying treatment, this phenomenon is known as time-varying confounding. When subsequent values of the time-varying confounder are brought about by prior treatment, this is an example of time-varying confounding that has been altered by prior treatment.